Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page. Website. http://xxxxx
General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation, last updated, or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 1: Author, No Date
Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm
Example 2: Corporate Author
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp
(U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010)
Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website
If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/be-safe-after.asp
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014a)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/plan.asp
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b)
If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-a). Priority admissions dates. http://www.sfcollege.edu/admissions/index.php?section=priority_dates
(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-b). SF to UF: A true story. http://www.sfcollege.edu/gators/true-story/index
(Santa Fe College, n.d.-b)
Example 4: No Author
Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html
When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:
The Lawrence W. Tyree Library website (http://www.sfcollege.edu/library) provides many resources for the students and faculty at Santa Fe College.
Source: Publication Manual, 8.22
Entries in Online Encyclopedias
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Individual Author
Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/
Example 2: Group Author
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism
(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)
Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.
Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)
Please note: Wikipedia is a good resource for learning about a topic, but it is usually not an acceptable source to cite in a paper or research project for a class at Clarkson College.
Title of entry. (Year, Month Day). In Wiki Name. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Wikipedia
Constitution of the United States. (2019, October 7). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_United_States&oldid=920036236
Note: Provide the link to the archived version of the entry you use. Click View history and the time/date corresponding to the entry version you used.
Example 2: Another Wiki
Greek mythology. (2008). In Citizendium. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Greek_mythology
("Greek Mythology," 2008).
Note: If there is no link to an archival version of the page, provide the retrieval date that you accessed the entry.
Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (example 49)
Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Screen Name
Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. Executed Today. http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/08/17/1909-madanlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary/
Example 2: Full Name
Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images. http://contexts.org/socimages/2009/08/07/what-makes-a-person-homeless/
Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Individual Author
Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf
Example 2: Organizational Author
For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf
First Time: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)
All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)
Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site
Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs-9758.pdf
Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (examples 50-52)
Online Videos (e.g. YouTube, TED)
Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).
Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Full Name
Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA
(Jones, 2009, 1:15)
Example 2: User Name Only
Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU
Example 3: TED Talk
Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons
TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs
Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.
Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90)
Author, A. A. (Role). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Website. http://xxxxx
Wise, G. D. (Cartographer). (1857). Preliminary survey of the mouth of the Apalachicola River, Florida [Map]. University of Florida. http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPFLL018.JPG
Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 100)
Online Lecture Notes or PowerPoint Slides
Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx
Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf
Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login
Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx
Santa Fe College. (2010). Film production classes and casting agent coming to SF [Press release]. http://news.sfcollege.edu/read.php/2010/09/03/film-production-classes-and-casting-agent-coming-to-sf.html
(Santa Fe College, 2010)
Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 59)
Film or Video Review
Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film, by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Website. http://xxxxx
Barsanti, C. (2011). The Muppets [Review of the film The Muppets, by J. Bobin, Dir.]. Filmcritic. http://www.filmcritic.com/reviews/2011/the-muppets/
Source: Publication Manual, 10.7 (examples 67-68)
Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.
Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx
Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-september-18-2012/salman-rushdie
Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)
Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/morefloridamemes/
(Florida Memes, n.d.)
Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page
If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
Include the URL of the specific post if possible.
Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx
CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. http://on.cnn.com/1cTftYk [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10152027847166509
Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson
If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text, including URLs.
The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
Replicate emojis if possible.
If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.
Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx
Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/neiltyson/status/1179714452553420802
Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx
Tyree Library [@tyreelibrary]. (2018, October 12). Check out our spooky display for October! All of the books and movies on display are available for checkout [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bo1uWOgAZ6b/